Inspiro Group - Travel and Logistics
Inspiro Group - Travel and Logistics
Inspiro Group - Travel and Logistics
96, Boulevard Erkindik, Bishkek,
720040, Kyrgyz Republic
Tel.: +996 (312) 30-46-17, 90-12-95
Fax: +996 (312) 90-12-95
e-mail: booking@inspiro.kg
Eng

Otyrar


Otyrar

 

About 150 km north west of Shymkent lay the scanty ruins of Otyrar (also called Farab, Otrar or Utrar), the town that brought Jenghiz Khan to Central Asia. Much of the rest of Asia and Europe, too, might have been spared the Mongols if Otyrars 13th century governor had not had the Great Khans merchants murdered here. Theres little left but hillocks, which were once town walls, and a few bits uncovered by archeologists. Such desolation where a busy town once stood may have its appeal.

Otyrar existed from about the 5th century AD, and was home to the celebrated philosopher and mathematician al-Farabi in the 9th century, and reached its peak in the 10th to 13th centuries, when it and Turkistan were the major cities of this part of Kazakhstan, thriving on settled agriculture and Silk-Road trade. By the 13th century Otyrar was a northern outpost of the Khorezmshah Empire. Here in 1218 a caravan of about 450 Muslim merchants arrived from Jenghiz Khan to put into practice a recently concluded trade agreement with Khorezmshah Mohammad II. But the governor of Otyrar , Inalchuq , suspected they were spies and had them all killed. Jenghiz Khan sent ambassadors to the Khorezmshah to demand reparations for this but one of these, too, was killed. Thus the biggest Mongol army to date, perhaps 150,000 or more, was assembled to squash the Khorezmshah. In 1219, while the Great Khan himself was taking care of Samarkand and Bukhara, about 50,000 of his forces, under his sons Shaghatai and Odegei , laid siege to Oty rar . It took them six month to break through into the citadel where Otyrars 80,000 strong garrison and most of its civilians had taken refuge.

They slaughtered virtually everyone except Inalchuq and his wife whom Jhenghiz Khan wanted taken alive. The couple of retreated to the roof of the armory, so the Mongols demolished the building to capture them. They then took him to Samarkand and killed him by pouring molten silver into his eyes and ears, before demolishing Otyrar. Otyrar revived as a trading centre in the subsequent Mongol peace, picked itself up again after another demolition job by Timur in the late 14th century but was finally laid to rest by the Oyrats (Zhungarians) from Mongolia in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Inspiro Group - Travel & Logistics


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